Plum Dragon Herbs

Shan Zha (Hawthorn Fruit)


Shan Zha (Fructus Crataegi), also known as hawthorn fruit, is derived from the hawthorn tree. The active compounds in Fructus Crataegi include flavonoids, procyanidins, and oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs), which have antioxidant properties. 


  1. Malic Acid
  2. Caffeic Acid
  3. Oleanolic Acid
  4. Crataegolic Acid
  5. Epicatechin
  6. Quercetin
  7. Chlorogenic Acid
  8. Citric Acid
  9. Citric Acid symmetrical monomethyl ester
  10. ....and more

High Quality Shan Zha: What does it look like?

Dried hawthorn fruit, also known as Shan Zha, should have a dark red or brown color and should be firm to the touch. The fruit should be free from mold, pests, and other contaminants and have consistent size and shape. The drying process should be done properly to maintain the quality of the fruit and it should be stored in a cool, dry place to prevent spoilage.

As for the smell, dried hawthorn fruit should have a distinctive, fruity aroma with a hint of natural sweetness. It should not have a musty or moldy smell, which can indicate that the fruit was not properly dried or stored.

How is Shan Zha prepared and processed?

Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) is a genus of shrubs and small trees that are native to the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, Asia, and North America. The optimal habitat and growing conditions for hawthorn will depend on the specific species and variety of hawthorn, but in general, hawthorn prefers well-drained soil and full sun to partial shade.

Hawthorn is a hardy plant that can tolerate a wide range of soil conditions, including acidic, alkaline, and clay soils. It is also tolerant of drought and cold temperatures. It can be grown in the regions from zone 3 to zone 8.

Hawthorn is a deciduous plant that typically grows to be around 20-30 ft tall but can reach up to 40 ft. It can have a single or multiple trunk with a dense canopy and thorny branches. The leaves are typically dark green and have a serrated edge. The hawthorn flowers in spring, producing small, white or pink flowers in clusters. The fruit, which is a small red, orange, or yellow berry, ripen in the fall and are often used in traditional medicine.

It's a good idea to plant hawthorn in a location that is protected from strong winds to prevent damage to the branches. And also provide enough space for the plant to grow, as well as adequate drainage.

In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), hawthorn fruit (Shan Zha) is typically processed before use to remove impurities and to enhance its medicinal properties. The process of processing Shan Zha can vary depending on the specific method used, but it typically involves several steps.

  • The first step in processing hawthorn fruit is to clean and sort the fruit. The fruit is washed to remove dirt and other impurities, then sorted to remove any damaged or spoiled pieces.
  • The next step is to dry the fruit. This is typically done by spreading the fruit out in the sun or by using a dehydrator. Drying helps to remove any remaining moisture and to preserve the fruit for future use.
  • After the fruit is dry, it is often cut into small pieces or ground into a powder. This makes it easier to use in decoctions or other preparations.

It's important to note that the quality of the raw materials and the processing methods are crucial for the medicinal properties of the herb. The Chinese pharmacopeia has strict guidelines for the quality control of the herbs.

In TCM, Shan Zha is considered to have a sour and warm nature and is used to regulate the digestion and the circulation of Qi. It is also used to treat digestive disorders such as indigestion, diarrhea, and abdominal bloating. It's also used to treat cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, angina, and irregular heartbeats. It's often used in combination with other herbs in formulas.

Popular Recipe for Shan Zha

Shan Zha, also known as Crataegus pinnatifida, is a commonly used herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

Here is a recipe for a traditional Chinese soup that includes Shan Zha:


  • 1/4 cup of dried Shan Zha
  • 1/4 cup of dried Chinese yam
  • 2 cups of chicken or vegetable broth
  • 1/4 cup of lotus seeds (optional)
  • 1 tsp of ginger, thinly sliced (optional)


  1. Soak the dried Shan Zha and Chinese yam in water for at least 30 minutes to soften.
  2. In a pot, bring the chicken or vegetable broth to a boil over medium-high heat.
  3. Add the soaked Shan Zha and Chinese yam to the pot.
  4. Bring the soup back to a boil and reduce the heat to low. Let it simmer for 20-30 minutes.
  5. If desired, add the lotus seeds and ginger for the last 5 minutes of cooking.
  6. Strain the soup and discard the solids.
  7. Drink the soup while it's warm.

Note: You can adjust the quantity of Shan Zha to your preference, and also add other ingredients such as honey or lemon juice to suit your taste.

It's important to note that Shan Zha should be used with caution because it can interact with other medications and it can cause side effects like stomach upset and dry mouth. It's always recommended consulting with a licensed healthcare practitioner before using it.

Safety Precautions for the use of Shan Zha

When using and handling Shan Zha (Crataegus pinnatifida), it is important to take the following precautions:

  1. Consult with a qualified healthcare professional before using the herb, as it may interact with certain medications or have contraindications for certain health conditions.

  2. Avoid using Shan Zha during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

  3. Do not use it in large doses or for prolonged periods of time as it may cause adverse reactions such as gastrointestinal discomfort, allergic reactions and it may also interact with blood-thinning medications.

  4. Keep Shan Zha out of reach of children and pets.

  5. Store Shan Zha in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight and moisture.

  6. If you experience any adverse reactions after using Shan Zha, discontinue use and consult with a healthcare professional.

  7. It should be used with caution if you have a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers.

  8. It should also be used with caution if you have a history of anemia or blood-clotting disorders, as it may have blood-thinning properties.

It’s important to note that this is a general guideline and it’s always best to consult with a healthcare professional or herbalist to determine the right dosage and usage for you

Additional Information about Shan Zha: 

According to TCM principles, Shan Zha acts to eliminate food retention, to invigorate blood circulation and remove stagnation.

Common Names: Shan Zha, (Hawthorn fruit, Crataegus fruit), Crataegus cuneata Sieb, et Zucc, Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.; Fructus Crataegi  

Properties: Sour, sweet, slightly warm

Channels Entered: Spleen, Stomach, Liver

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